Abstract

The Internet is changing the average citizens as much as did other technologies, for instance: telephone, TV, computers, mobile phones, etc. The main province was to help the science, engineering, and business. Many scholars, technologists, and social critics believe that these changes and the Internet, in particular, are transforming economic and social life [1]. In the past few years, the scholars have done many researches to make a conclusion of difference in psychological and social tend of the Internet to the citizens. Therefore, the term “digital divide” is the gap that exists between those who have access to electronic and Information Technology – Internet and those who do not [2]. Whereby the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) set up could result in an order of restricting the universal access to the Internet. And representing a barrier to European development as an information, knowledge and technology society. In other words, could lead to the censorship of online content and control-restriction to the Internet’s freedom, by intimidation the growth of electronic business, cultural exchange, as well as digital creativity. In order to safe the Internet and to provide shelter to digital divide culture we will have to take actions.

Introduction

Enormous continuing and boosting usage of information and communication technologies in an economic inequality between groups, broadly construed, in terms of access and knowledge has created the term digital divide. Additionally, divide inside countries also could refer to individuals, households, business and geographical areas at different socioeconomic and other demographic levels. On one hand the Internet is changing the average citizens. As much as on the other hand the other technologies, such as: telephone, TV, mobile phones, etc. The main idea and purpose was to aid to and benefit the science, engineering, and business. However, many scholars, technologists, and social critics believe that these changes and the Internet, in particular, are transforming economic and social life [1]. In the past, the scholars have done many researches to make a conclusion of difference in psychological and social tend of the Internet to the citizens. Therefore, the term “digital divide” is the gap that exists between those who have access to electronic and Information Technology – Internet and those who do not [2]. Moreover, interesting is to point out that to break the gap between the digital divide the scholars and societies have created a new approach and technology for delivering laptop per child. The project name is one laptop per Child and significant fact is that as of 2011 there were over about 2.4 million XO laptops delivered elsewhere [4]. Whereby the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) could result in an order of restricting the universal access to the Internet. And representing a barrier to European development as an information, knowledge and technology society. In other words, could lead to the censorship of online content and control-restriction to the Internet’s freedom, by intimidation the growth of electronic business, cultural exchange, as well as digital creativity. Therefore, in this article we have introduced the readers within the basic concept of digital divide. In addition we illustrate to the readers a map of digital divide and example countries that have stress out the digital divide. In contrast to digital divide we would emphasis on the secret negotiations of ACTA agreement. Moreover, why we should care about it, as well as in order to safe the Internet what kind of actions we should take into consideration. At least we deliver to the readers a conclusion.

Digital divide

As we mentioned previously it is a term to determine the gap that exists between those who have access to electronic and Information Technology – Internet and those who do not [1]. Thereby in the next subsection we introduce the readers within the concept and basic approach of determining and criteria to define the digital divide. Least we also provide the example country of digital divide.

Concept

The main concept and criteria of digital divide is shown below [3]:

​1. Subjects of connectivity, or who connects: individuals, organizations, enterprises, schools, hospitals, countries, etc.

​2. Characteristics of connectivity, or which attributes: demographic and socio-economic variables, such as income, education, age, geographic location, etc.

​3. Means of connectivity, or connectivity to what: fixed or mobile, Internet or telephony, digital TV, etc.

​4. Intensity of connectivity, or how sophisticated the usage: mere access, retrieval, interactivity, innovative contributions.

​5. Purpose of connectivity, or why individuals and their cohorts are (not) connecting: reasons individuals are and are not online and uses of the Internet and ICTs.

Example

One of the best example of digital divide is a North Korea. The broadband infrastructure is with optical fiber links up to 2.5Gbits/s [5]. Additionally the Internet in North Korea is more or less is recalled as “Intranet”, because of implementation of the Kwangmyong network, in English “walled garden” [6]. The most significant fact was the news have spread information that one of the most known torrent sites has been moved to and relocated in North Korea, March 4 2013. However this information was no correct. For more details please refer to the following source [7]. Nevertheless the above are just simple examples and in the Figure 1 we have illustrated you with the map of digital divide.

ACTA: Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement

Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement has been negotiated from 2007 through 2010 by the United states, the European Union, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Singapore, Morocco, Japan and South Korea. And it has been signed 8 of 11 agreements in October 2011. Moreover, in October 2012 it was ratifies by Japan as well [8]. In addition in Figure 2 we have illustrated you the map of ACTA countries involved in drafting the convention.

Why should you care?

When we look over the both maps we can come to conclusion that the strongest countries that has less digital divide is the ones who has drafted the convention of ACTA. So we should care, because of the process how it was negotiated, indeed in secret. And the first text was officially released in 2010. It has been roundup within eight closed-doors negotiations. As well as the provisions, where the new IP enforcement measures that raise potential concerns for users free speech, privacy, ability to innovate and due process rights. And finally, the enforcement it creates a new ad-hoc institution, an “ACTA Committee”, constituting non-elected members to oversee ACTA implementation and interpretation with no legal obligation to the transparent in their proceedings [8].

Digital divide vs ACTA

Anyhow, when we compare digital divide versus ACTA agreement we can see that they overlap into one opposite directions. Such as explained in the below table:

Digital divide ACTA
Access to ICT – Internet Restriction to Internet
Freedom of speech Censorship and control-restriction to freedom
Economy growth Privacy
Culture exchange N/A
Demoralizing: the economy, culture exchange, digital creativity
Digital creativity N/A

Conclusion

In short summary is we have introduced the reader with the terminology of what is digital divide coupled with examples. As well as the linked connection between the two topics, digital divide versus ACTA agreement. Therefore, we come to the conclusion is that indeed the ACTA convention is bullying the digital divide.

Presentation

Bibliography

[1]: Robert , K., Micheal, P., Vicki, L., Sara, K., Tridas , M., & William , S., Internet Paradox, 1998 "Robert"

[2]: University of Minnesota Duluth, Web Design References: Glossary, 2011, http://www.victoriapoint.com/child_technology.htm "Duluth"

[3]: Martin Hilbert, The end justifies the definition: the manifold outlooks on the digital divide and their practical usefulness for policy-making, 2011 "Martin"

[4]: Worldwide | One Laptop per Child, 2013, http://laptop.org/map "OLPC"

[5]: Jungbae An, Asia Internet History Projects, Sep 26, 2012, https://sites.google.com/site/internethistoryasia/country-region-information/north-korea-korea-democratic-peoples-republic-of "Jungbae"

[6]: Andrew Jacobs, Google Chief UrgesNorth Korea to Embrace Web, January 10, 2013 "Andrew"

[7]: Will, The Pirate Bay – North Korean hosting? No, it’s fake. (P2), 05. March 2013, ttps://rdns.im/the-pirate -bay-north-korean-hosting-no-its-fake-p2 "Will"

[8]: Carolina Rossini, Maira Sutton, Gwen Hinze, Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement, https://www.eff.org/issues/acta "Carolina" Video =====